The rich history of The Osage Nation trails back hundreds of years BC. A Midwestern Native American tribe, the Nation was recognized as a dominating force throughout territories now known as Arkansas, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. By 700 BC, tribal members began to span across the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys. Seminomadic & chiefly dependent on buffalo, they were skilled in hunting, foraging, gardening, and agriculture.
By the 16th century, the tribe had begun to migrate west of the Mississippi in search of new hunting ground trailing battles with invading Iroquois. But by the 19th century, The Osage Nation reached their height of power. This was a time when the tribe dominated the region bordered by the Ozarks, the Wichita Mountains, and the Missouri and Red rivers.
In 1803, the U.S. government began to take their land away starting with the Louisiana Territory. Unrelenting, the Osage Nation refused to turn over their land thus delaying Oklahoma statehood. Eventually though, in 1906, the U.S. government forced the Nation to accept allotment yet granted 657 acres of land to each of the registered tribal members. This totaled approximately 1.4 million acres of land in all, and it represented approximately 400 percent more than that apportioned to Native American households elsewhere.
In adeal pivotal to their financial well-being, the tribe worked to secure their communal mineral rights on reservation land. When crude oil was found on tribally owned prairie land, the U.S. government leased that land for use in oil development. With such large quantities of oil, royalties were reportedly as high as $30 million in just a single year, 1923. The nation prospered similarly throughout the 1910s and 1920s as a result. Today, significant populations reside in Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, and Kansas.